The purpose of this deliverable is to provide a thorough analysis of the various Load Curtailment programs being offered by electric utilities to appropriate energy consumers that meet certain requirements. Load curtailment can take a variety of forms depending on the severity of the shortfall in supply and the type of agreement between the utility and the end user and the equipment in place to implement the reductions. In the simplest form, the utility notifies the owner of a curtailment request (typically a day in advance) and it is up to the customer to voluntarily meet the requested load reduction. However, there are additional forms that involve a much shorter time frame (a few hours in advance) while non-conformance penalties for customers that do not comply with the given instructions may also be included. Typically, these requests come during periods of high load such as hot summer afternoons. Options for the end user range from adjusting temperatures to shutting off lights to closing facilities to meet the requested reduction levels. Appropriate customers comprise commercial and industrial building owners who have the ability to reduce loads at the request of the utility by turning off equipment or using alternative sources of energy and may realize significant savings under these programs.
In order to have a clear picture about these programs, an introduction to all DR programs is performed and the most commonly used programs are described. Special attention is given to the Advanced Metering Infrastructure and the most important aspects, including worldwide roll out programs, benefits and cost issues, are thoroughly analysed. In order to obtain the relative information, extended bibliographical research has been conducted. In addition, a brief description of the current status of DR programs in various European countries as well as in several states in the U.S. is performed in order to obtain valuable experience. Finally, the potential of Load Curtailment is examined regarding the Greek Interconnected Power System. A special consideration is given to the specific operational characteristics of the system while the benefits that may be obtained by applying this service are quantified.